Case study on Google

Google is a multinational American technology company specialising in Internet-related services and products. It was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were PhD students at Stanford University. Today, Google has become one of the largest technology companies in the world, with products and services that include search engines, online advertising technologies, cloud computing, software, and hardware.


Sanjam Singh

12/14/20227 min read

Google logo neon light signage
Google logo neon light signage

Case study on Google


Google is one of the most successful and innovative companies in the tech industry. It was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two PhD students at Stanford University. What started as a simple search engine has grown into a global technology giant with over $1 trillion market capitalisation.

One of the keys to Google's success has been its focus on innovation. From its early days, the company has been committed to developing new and innovative products that solve real-world problems. For example, Google Maps was launched in 2005 and has become the world's most widely used mapping service. Google also revolutionised how we interact with the internet through its development of the Chrome web browser, which has become the most popular browser in the world.

Another critical factor in Google's success has been its commitment to creating a great user experience. Google has always believed that by providing users with the best possible experience, they will continue to use its products and services. This has led to the development of features that make using Google products easy and intuitive, such as its famous search bar and autocomplete suggestions.

Google's business model is based on advertising, and it has become the dominant player in the online advertising industry. Its advertising platform, Google Ads, allows businesses to target their ads to specific audiences based on factors such as location, demographics, and search terms. This has proven an effective way for businesses to reach their target customers and helped Google generate billions of dollars in revenue.

One of Google's most successful ventures was its acquisition of YouTube in 2006. YouTube has since become the largest video-sharing platform in the world, with over 2 billion monthly active users. This acquisition has allowed Google to expand its reach and provide a platform for businesses to reach new audiences through video advertising.

Google's commitment to innovation and user experience has also extended to its workplace culture. As a result, the company has been consistently ranked as one of the best places to work globally, thanks to its focus on employee well-being, work-life balance, and innovation. For example, Google's famous "20% time" policy allows employees to spend one day a week working on their projects, which has led to the development of some of the company's most innovative products.

Overall, Google's success can be attributed to its focus on innovation, user experience, and advertising. By constantly developing new products and services and providing a great user experience, Google has maintained its position as the most widely used search engine in the world, and one of the most successful companies in the tech industry.

Market Position

Google is one of the world's largest technology companies and is considered a dominant player in the search engine market. Google's market position is significant, and it has become synonymous with search engines for many people.

As of 2021, Google had a global search engine market share of over 90%, according to Statista. This means that most people who use search engines use Google to conduct their searches. This market dominance gives Google significant power and influence in the online advertising industry, where it generates the majority of its revenue.

In addition to its search engine dominance, Google has developed a range of other products and services that have helped it establish a strong market position in other areas. These include Google Maps, Gmail, Google Drive, YouTube, and the Android mobile operating system. These products have helped Google become a significant player in online advertising, mobile technology, and video.

Overall, Google's market position is robust and one of the most influential companies in the technology industry. Its search engine dominance and range of popular products and services have helped it maintain a significant presence in many areas of the online world.

Innovation and R&D

Innovation and research and development (R&D) have been critical components of Google's success as a company. From its early days as a search engine to its current status as a leading tech giant, Google has consistently invested in R&D and innovation to stay ahead of the competition.

Google's culture of innovation is reflected in its famous 20% time policy, which allows employees to spend 20% of their working hours pursuing projects that interest them, even if those projects are not directly related to their job responsibilities. This policy has led to many successful projects, including Gmail, Google News, and AdSense.

Google has also invested heavily in research and development in many areas, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, virtual reality, and quantum computing. The company has established several research centres around the world, such as Google Brain, which is focused on advancing the field of artificial intelligence, and Google X, which is focused on moonshot projects that aim to solve major global problems.

One of Google's most significant R&D initiatives is its DeepMind division, which is focused on developing advanced artificial intelligence algorithms. DeepMind has made considerable progress in machine learning, natural language processing, and computer vision, and its algorithms have been used to improve everything from healthcare to energy efficiency.

In addition to its internal R&D efforts, Google has also been an active acquirer of innovative startups. Over the years, the company has acquired many companies, including YouTube, Android, and Nest. These acquisitions have allowed Google to expand its reach into new markets and incorporate new technologies into its products and services.

Overall, innovation and R&D have been critical drivers of Google's success. The company's culture of innovation and commitment to developing new technologies and products have allowed it to stay ahead of the curve and maintain its position as a leader in the tech industry. Moreover, as the company continues to expand into new markets and explore new technologies, innovation and R&D will likely remain at the core of its strategy for many years to come.

Strategy and Competitors

Google is one of the most successful technology companies in the world, and its dominance in the search engine market has made it a household name. To maintain its position as a leader in the industry, Google has implemented several strategies and tactics and has faced various competitors along the way.

Google's core strategy is to provide users with the best search results. To achieve this, the company invests heavily in research and development, constantly improving its search algorithms to ensure that users get the most relevant and high-quality results. In addition to its search engine, Google has diversified its business through various other products and services, including advertising, cloud computing, mobile operating systems, and hardware.

One of Google's key advantages is its massive user base. With billions of people using its search engine and other products daily, Google has access to vast amounts of data that it can use to improve its products and services. Additionally, Google's strong brand recognition and innovation reputation have helped solidify its position as a dominant player in the industry.

However, Google has faced its fair share of competition over the years. Microsoft's Bing is one of its most significant competitors in the search engine market. While Bing has struggled to gain market share, it still holds a considerable portion of the search engine market and has tried to improve its search algorithms and user experience.

Another major competitor to Google is Amazon, which has emerged as a dominant player in the e-commerce industry. Amazon's product search capabilities and its growing advertising business have positioned it as a potential threat to Google's dominance in the advertising space. In addition, social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have also become essential players in the digital advertising industry, competing with Google for ad dollars.

Google has also faced regulatory challenges recently, with antitrust lawsuits and investigations into its business practices. These challenges have put pressure on the company to be more transparent and to adjust some of its methods to address concerns about competition.

Despite these challenges, Google's core strategy of providing the best search results has allowed it to maintain its position as a leader in the industry. In addition, the company continues to invest in new products and services and has expanded its reach into new markets such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality. With its vast resources and dedicated workforce, Google is well-positioned to continue to innovate and adapt to the changing digital landscape in the years to come.


As one of the world's largest and most successful companies, Google faces several challenges with its size and influence. Here are some of the main challenges that Google faces:

Antitrust and Regulatory Scrutiny: As one of the world's largest companies, Google faces regulatory scrutiny from governments and regulatory bodies worldwide. In recent years, Google has faced antitrust investigations from the European Union, the US Department of Justice, and other organizations. These investigations have focused on concerns that Google has abused its market power to suppress competition.

Privacy and Data Protection: As a company that handles vast amounts of user data, Google faces increasing scrutiny over its data protection and privacy practices. The company has faced criticism for collecting and using user data, including targeted advertising and tracking user activity across multiple platforms.

Competition: While Google dominates the search engine market, it faces growing competition from other companies in the tech industry. Companies such as Amazon, Facebook, and Apple are increasingly competing with Google in advertising, e-commerce, and cloud computing areas.

Content Moderation: As a platform that hosts user-generated content, Google faces the challenge of moderating content that may be illegal, harmful, or offensive. Google has faced criticism for handling hate speech, fake news, and extremist content on its platforms.

Innovation: Google's success has been built on its ability to innovate and bring new products and services to market. However, as the company has grown larger and more complex, it has become increasingly challenging to maintain the culture of innovation that has driven its success.

Employee Relations: Like many large companies, Google faces challenges maintaining positive employee relations. The company has faced criticism over issues such as gender and racial discrimination, worker protests, and controversial projects such as Project Maven, a military AI project in which Google was involved.

In summary, Google faces a range of challenges due to its size, influence, and the nature of its business. The company will need to continue to navigate these challenges to maintain its position as a global leader in the tech industry.


Google has become one of the world's most powerful and influential companies thanks to its dominance in the online search and advertising markets. The company's strong culture of innovation and investment in research and development has allowed it to remain at the forefront of emerging technology markets. However, the company faces several challenges, including increased regulation and competition, which will likely shape its future direction and impact its ability to continue growing and innovating.